Molecular Enzymology and Drug Targets

About Molecular Enzymology and Drug Targets

Journal of Molecular enzymology and Drug Targets aims is to publish the work of designing and synthesis of enzymes and high unmet medical need are based on innovative drug targets. Journal of Molecular enzymology and Drug Targets is an international journal for rapid dissemination of significant data related to enzymes and their use in biotechnology and drug discovery.

The basic enthusiasm of the journal is publishing new data related to the molecular aspects of enzymes, cellular lipid metabolism, biocatalysis, enzyme mechanisms and cellular functions in broader aspects of biology. Molecular Enzymology's interest include in all aspects related to enzymes like discovery of enzymes, enzyme structure, enzyme mechanisms, cellular and metabolic functions of enzymes, exploitation of enzymes for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications, Enzymology, drug discovery, biochemical aspects of enzymes, bioinformatics, computational analysis, molecular modelling studies, new methods in enzyme expression and purification, biocatalysis, biomolecular engineering, enzyme kinetics and inhibitors. In spite of the great work done in the field of enzymes but there is no specific journal interested in enzymology and in related areas of drug discovery. Therefore, the journal Molecular Enzymology and Drug Targets will be unique in its discipline as it can be the first interest to authors working in the field of enzymology and related subjects.

The journal is an interdisciplinary medium serving several branches of life sciences. This Journals publishes original articles, short communications, notes, and mini reviews. Full length reviews are only published after invitation from the editorial board. Preliminary studies are inappropriate for publishing in Journal of Molecular enzymology and Drug Targets, unless the authors report the significance of their findings, in that case, the manuscript can be accepted. Average first decision of submitted manuscript is expected to be 14 days.

Submit manuscript at http://www.editorialmanager.com/imedpub/default.aspx or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at molecularenzymology@imedpub.com

Enzyme Structure

Enzymes are proteins processing cellular metabolism. They can affect a reaction by catalyzing and they can be used to reverse the reaction in bio-chemical pathways. Though enzymes have complex enzyme structure they undergo many changes which is very important for reactions and so enzyme structure is very important. There is a specific enzyme for specific reaction.

Enzymes structure are made up of α amino acids which are linked together via amide (peptide) bonds in a linear chain. This is the primary structure. The resulting amino acid chain is called a polypeptide or protein. The specific order of amino acids in the protein is encoded by the DNA sequence of the corresponding gene.

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Enzyme Engineering, Advances in Biological Regulation, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part A Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part B Molecular Biotechnology, Current Enzyme Inhibition, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Enzyme Research

Enzyme Engineering

Enzyme engineering or protein engineering is the process of designing proteins or enzymes by changing the sequence of amino acids through recombinant DNA mutation. Directed revolution and rational design are the two techniques used in enzyme engineering or protein designing in the process of drug discovery.

Enzymes are proteins, enzyme engineering is a part of the larger activity of protein engineering. Enzyme engineering utilizes recombinant DNA technology to introduce the desired changes in the amino acid sequences of enzymes.

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Enzyme Engineering, Advances in Biological Regulation, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part A Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part B Molecular Biotechnology, Current Enzyme Inhibition, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Enzyme Research, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Journal, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Journal of Bionic Engineering

Molecular Enzymology

Molecular enzymology is designing and synthesis of enzymes and high unmet medical needs are based on innovative drug targets. The work of designing and synthesis of enzymes and high unmet medical need are based on innovative drug targets.

Molecular Enzymology's interest include in all aspects related to enzymes like discovery of enzymes, enzyme structure, enzyme mechanisms, cellular and metabolic functions of enzymes, exploitation of enzymes for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications, drug discovery, biochemical aspects of enzymes, bioinformatics, computational analysis, molecular modeling studies, new methods in enzyme expression and purification, bio catalysis, bio molecular engineering, enzyme kinetics and inhibitors.

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Enzyme Engineering, Advances in Molecular Toxicology, American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part B Molecular Biotechnology, Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids

Drug Products Database

Drug product database is used for finding the drugs and companies which is mostly used in phase 4 (post marketing surveillance) or before the drug enters into market for the safety and efficacy of the drug. This Drug product database contains all the classifications of drugs.

The Drug Product Database (DPD) system captures information on human, veterinary and disinfectant products approved for use. This extract contains both marketed (active) and discontinued (inactivated) products in separate files.

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Drug Transporters

Drug transporters are also proteins that transport drugs into or out of cells by up taking or refluxing the drugs. There are many types of drug transporters include some enhance the activity of the drug and some reduce the activity of the drug in process like metabolism, respiration etc.

Altered drug transporter function, whether due to genetic polymorphisms, drug-drug interactions, or environmental factors such as dietary constituents, can result in unexpected toxicity. Such effects are in part due to the interplay between various uptake and efflux transporters with overlapping functional capabilities that can manifest as marked interindividual variability in drug disposition in vivo.

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Journal of Developing Drugs, Drug Designing: Open Access,International Publisher of Science, Technology and Medicine, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development, Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research, Assay and Drug Development Technologies, Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition, Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders - Drug Targets, Chemical Biology and Drug Design,Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development, Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, Current Cancer Drug Targets, Current Drug Delivery, Current Drug Targets.

 

Enzymes and Drug Targets

Enzymes are the proteins in the drug design that act as drug targets for the diseases in the process of drug discovery and development. There are number of drug targets involved in the designing of the drug.

Drug target as a nucleic acid or a protein (e.g. an enzyme, a receptor) whose activity can be modified by a drug. The drug can be a small-molecular-weight chemical compound or a biological, such as an antibody or a recombinant protein. The drug target should have been shown to be effective/mechanistically involved in the disease by relevant in vitro or in vivo models.

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CNS Drug Targets

In CNS drug discovery the drug targets are used for targeting CNS and neurological related diseases like Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease ,schizophrenia, drug dependence, etc.,

Drug target as a nucleic acid or a protein (e.g. an enzyme, a receptor) whose activity can be modified by a drug. The drug can be a small-molecular-weight chemical compound or a biological, such as an antibody or a recombinant protein. The drug target should have been shown to be effective/mechanistically involved in the disease by relevant in vitro or in vivo models.

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Journal of Developing Drugs,Drug Designing: Open Access,International Publisher of Science,Technology and Medicine, Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, Inflammation and Allergy - Drug Targets, Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders - Drug Targets, Current Cancer Drug Targets, Current Drug Targets.

Targeted Drug Therapy

Targeted drug therapy is mostly done in cancer which involves in targeting the cells that are associated with the disease in promoting growth, progression and the spread of the disease.Drug target as a nucleic acid or a protein (e.g. an enzyme, a receptor) whose activity can be modified by a drug.

The drug can be a small-molecular-weight chemical compound or a biological, such as an antibody or a recombinant protein. The drug target should have been shown to be effective/mechanistically involved in the disease by relevant in vitro or in vivo models.

The therapy is done by identifying the targets which is very important in the treatment of disease. Targeted drugs attack the targets or infected cells as a procedure of therapy.

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Cancer Drug Targets

Cancer drug targets are the drugs that target cancer causing cells by preventing the cells to grow and develop. Many new anti- neoplastic agents are developed in the process of targeting malignant cells in the body.

Drug target as a nucleic acid or a protein (e.g. an enzyme, a receptor) whose activity can be modified by a drug. The drug can be a small-molecular-weight chemical compound or a biological, such as an antibody or a recombinant protein.

The drug target should have been shown to be effective/mechanistically involved in the disease by relevant in vitro or in vivo models. Cancer drug targets alter the metabolism of cancer causing cells by inhibiting the spread of the disease.

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Journal of Developing Drugs, Drug Designing: Open Access, International Publisher of Science, Technology and Medicine, Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, Inflammation and Allergy - Drug Targets, Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders - Drug Targets, Current Cancer Drug Targets, Current Drug Targets.

Infectious Disease Drug Targets

Drug target as a nucleic acid or a protein (e.g. an enzyme, a receptor) whose activity can be modified by a drug. The drug can be a small-molecular-weight chemical compound or a biological, such as an antibody or a recombinant protein. The drug target should have been shown to be effective/mechanistically involved in the disease by relevant in vitro or in vivo models.

 Infectious disease drug targets are the drugs that stop the growth of the cells and spread of the infection by targeting the infection causing cells in the body. Many new anti-infective drugs are developed in drug discovery process.

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Receptor Drug Targets

Drug target as a nucleic acid or a protein (e.g. an enzyme, a receptor) whose activity can be modified by a drug. The drug can be a small-molecular-weight chemical compound or a biological, such as an antibody or a recombinant protein. The drug target should have been shown to be effective/mechanistically involved in the disease by relevant in vitro or in vivo models.

Receptors are the proteins located on the surface of the cell and inside of the cell act as drug targets by regulating the cellular process. Receptor drug targets help the drug to show its effect in various disease stages.

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HIV Drug Targets

Drug target as a nucleic acid or a protein (e.g. an enzyme, a receptor) whose activity can be modified by a drug. The drug can be a small-molecular-weight chemical compound or a biological, such as an antibody or a recombinant protein. The drug target should have been shown to be effective/mechanistically involved in the disease by relevant in vitro or in vivo models.

Anti-retroviral drugs targets the cells in various stages of HIV life cycle and in drug discovery process many new Anti HIV drugs has been discovered by using the small differences in normal cells and infected cells.

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Targeted Drug Delivery System

Drug target as a nucleic acid or a protein (e.g. an enzyme, a receptor) whose activity can be modified by a drug. The drug can be a small-molecular-weight chemical compound or a biological, such as an antibody or a recombinant protein. The drug target should have been shown to be effective/mechanistically involved in the disease by relevant in vitro or in vivo models.

In this system the drug is delivered to the patient concentrating that the drug should release in the targeted sites of the body. This increases the safety and reduces the side effects by decreasing the release of drug concentration in not targeted sites.

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Metabolic Pathway

Metabolic pathway includes series of reactions in a cell for being of organism. It is of two types like catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism breaks the molecules and produces energy. Anabolism requires energy to break the molecules.

A metabolic pathway is a step-by-step series of interconnected biochemical reactions that convert a substrate molecule or molecules through a series of metabolic intermediates, eventually yielding a final product or products. For example, one metabolic pathway for carbohydrates breaks large molecules down into glucose. Another metabolic pathway might build glucose into large carbohydrate molecules for storage.

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Enzyme Inhibitor

Enzyme inhibitors are the substances that inhibit the activity by binding to an enzyme. There are three types of enzyme inhibition and they are substrate inhibition, competitive inhibition and non-competitive inhibition.

Reversible inhibitors can bind to enzymes through weak non-covalent interactions such as ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bonds. Because reversible inhibitors do not form any chemical bonds or reactions with the enzyme, they are formed rapidly and can be easily removed; thus the enzyme and inhibitor complex is rapidly dissociated in contrast to irreversible inhibition.

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Transcription

Transcription is a step in the production of proteins by transforming the segment of DNA to RNA which is called as mRNA. RNA polymerase is the enzyme used in this process. Transcription is the beginning in production of proteins.

Transcription is the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template. Also important is the concept that transcription, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic

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DNA Sequence

DNA sequence is the technique used to determine the sequence of DNA. DNA sequencing is to find out the sequence of nucleotide. To know the gene mutations for causing disease, DNA sequence knowledge is important.

Two key developments allowed researchers to believe that sequencing the entire genome could be possible. The first was a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that enabled many copies of DNA sequence to be quickly and accurately produced. The second, an automated method of DNA sequencing.

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Translation

Translation is the process followed by transcription in the synthesis of amino acids. In the process of protein synthesis mRNA molecule sequence is translated to amino acids sequence. Thus ribosome forms protein through the translated mRNA.

The information in DNA is transferred to a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule by way of a process called transcription. During transcription, the DNA of a gene serves as a template for complementary base-pairing, and an enzyme called RNA polymerase II catalyzes the formation of a pre-mRNA molecule, which is then processed to form mature mRNA.

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Uncompetitive Inhibition

Uncompetitive inhibition is the process when the uncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme-substrate complex only. This process increases the availability of substrate as the uncompetitive inhibitor stops the reaction between enzyme and substrate.

Uncompetitive inhibitor binds to enzyme-substrate complex to stop enzyme from reacting with substrate to form product, as such, it works well at higher substrate and enzyme concentrations that substrates are bonded to enzymes

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Noncompetitive Inhibition

Noncompetitive inhibition is the process that noncompetitive inhibitor binds to enzyme substrate complex. Thus the reaction between enzyme and substrate slows down.

In noncompetitive inhibition, a molecule binds to an enzyme somewhere other than the active site. This changes the enzyme's three-dimensional structure so that its active site can still bind substrate with the usual affinity, but is no longer in the optimal arrangement to stabilize the transition state and catalyze the reation.

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Substrate Specificity

Certain enzymes bind to the certain substrates only. There are 4 types of specificity, they are absolute specificity, group specificity, linkage specificity and stereochemical speficity depending on their steric sites, number of reactions they undergo, groups, type of bond they form.

The substrate is relatively smaller than the enzyme. Therefore, the substrate is binding with a portion of the enzyme. The substrate is attached to the enzyme with weak bonding forces such as hydrogen bond, electrostatic interactions, and dipole-dipole interactions. The substrates are usually complementary to the enzymes. However, it is possible that they do not fit perfectly each other. These bonding forces help the complex to be more stable. In the case of two substrate reactions involving ternary complex, two substrates must be bound close to each other to precede the reaction. It is impossible to proceed the reaction if two substrates are not adjacent or close each other spatially. From the case, the enzyme should have some steric specificity.

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Hydrophilic Interactions

When the substrate binds to water then that interaction is known as hydrophilic interaction and the contact angle between water and substrate will be very less.

Molecules that have charged parts to them are attracted to the charges within the water molecule.

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Hydrophobic Interactions

When the substrate repel to water then that interaction is known as hydrophobic interaction and the contact angle between water and substrate will be more.

The tendency of nonpolar molecules in a polar solvent (usually water) to interact with one another is called the hydrophobic effect. The interactions between the nonpolar molecules are called hydrophobic interactions.

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Combinational Chemistry

In combinational chemistry many compounds are made at a time finally with low risk of failure and their libraries include collection of final compounds. Combinational chemistry is advanced than the conventional chemistry.

Combinatorial chemistry is a laboratory technique in which millions of molecular constructions can be synthesized and tested for biological activity.

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